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Pulse Oximeters

pulse oximeter

Browse through this page and you will find a wealth of information related to pulse oximeter. We will update this section regularly. Send us an email if you are interested in any specific topics.

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How to Buy Baby Sleep Monitors

There are several types of baby monitors, from baby breathing movement monitor, to baby video monitor to baby sound monitors, but there is little doubt that the most complete ones are the monitors that track a baby’s vital signs. Baby vital signs monitors for home use, are as reliable as the ones used in hospitals. They can be equipped with alarms that alert you when the baby’s pulse or oxygen level in the blood reaches dangerous levels.

What is a Pulse Oximeter

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Pulse Oximeters - Screening Critical Congenital Heart Defects

Critical congenital heart defects (CCHDs) are structgural heart defects and have accounted for about 25% of all congenital heart defects. Newborn babies with CCHD frequently suffer from bypoxemia. A simple test using a pulse oximeter for detecting hypoxemia can be an effective screening tool.

Screening Sleep Apnea with Pulse Oximeters

Sleep apnea is a silent condition that affects millions of Americans. If you are constantly tired, have difficulty concentrating on your job or can’t stay awake you might be suffering from sleep apnea. You can find out if you have sleep apnea by using an overnight pulse oximeter recorder at home. These devices allow you to record your pulse and oxygen levels for up to 24 hours. The recorded data is illustrated in a graph that can show a sleep apnea pattern.

How to Interpret Pulse Oximeter Readings

The best place to get the answer to this question is in your doctor's office. Your pulse oximetry normal values are dependent on your health condition, respiratory rate, percentage of oxygen in the air, activities you are performing, and other factors. Here are some general guidelines to understand oximeter readings. For a regular healthy person, the normal blood oxygen saturation level (SpO2) should be around 94% to 99%. For patients with mild respiratory diseases, the SpO2 should be 90% or above. Supplementary oxygen should be used if SpO2 level falls below 90%, which is unacceptable for a prolonged period of time. Medicare will pay for oxygen supply if your reading is below 88%. If you fall into this abnormal range, consult with a doctor immediately. Many doctors want their patients to have their SpO2 above 90%.

Pulse Oximeter Pleth (Plethysmograph)

A plethysmograph is an instrument for measuring changes in volume within an organ or whole body (usually resulting from fluctuations in the amount of blood or air it contains). A photoplethysmograph (PPG) is a plethysmograph that uses optical techniques. A pulse oximeter measures oxygen saturation level (SpO2) and is also a PPG. It can measure the change in the volume of arterial blood with each pulse beat. This change in blood volume can be detected in peripheral parts of the body such as the fingertip or ear lobe using a technique called photoplethysmography. The pulse oximeter that detects the signal is called a plethysmograph (or 'Pleth' for short). Because of the nature of pulse oximeter, measuring the pressure from a pleth waveform has not been possible. However, the information has shown to be useful in diagnosis and in gauging the severity of illness in newborns. Many doctors use the pulse oximeter's pleth waveform as an early indication for cyclic changes in physiology. If the variability increases, it indicates a change in the intrathoracic/blood volume relationship. The blood flow is normally shown as a waveform using a bar or graph. It can provide useful information regarding the heart condition.

Limitations in Using a Pulse Oximeter

A pulse oximeter is simple to purchase over the internet; however you should also understand its limitations and usages to ensure accurate measurements. Pulse oximeter works by shining two lights though a translucent portion of the patient's body and measuring the variation in light absorption caused by the changes in blood flow. The total light absorbance is the sum of a constant component and a pulsating component, which is almost exclusively the result of arteriolar bed pulsations. Pulse oximetry assumes that arterial blood is the only pulsatile absorber and other sources of fluctuations could contribute to erroneous readings.

Pulse Assessment With Pulse Oximeter

The pulse bar or pleth is a graphical representation of how your heart beats; although it does not give you a set of numbers, it gives you an indication of your general health and heart conditions. Here we will discuss how and why you should pay attention to this signal. Pulse rhythm, pulse rate and pulse strength are three of the factors that you can assess with a pulse oximeter.

Accuracy of Pulse Oximeter

The accuracy range of a pulse oximeter is defined as the root-mean-square (rms) of the differences between measured SpO2 values and SaO2 reference values. This is different from the traditional definition that a reading would have a probability of over 99.9% to fall within the range.

What is Oxygen Saturation (SpO2)

Pulse Oximeter: A pulse oximeter is a device intended for the non-invasive measurement of arterial blood oxygen saturation and pulse rate. Typically it uses two LEDs (light-emitting diodes) generating red and infrared lights through a translucent part of the body. Bone, tissue, pigmentation, and venous vessels normally absorb a constant amount of light over time. Oxy-hemoglobin and its deoxygenated form have significantly different absorption pattern. The arteriolar bed normally pulsates and absorbs variable amounts of light during systole and diastole, as blood volume increases and decreases. The ratio of light absorbed at systole and diastole is translated into an oxygen saturation measurement. CO-oximeter: A CO-oximeter is a device for detecting hypoxia and works similar to a pulse oximeter. CO-oximeter measures absorption at several wavelengths to distinguish oxy-hemoglobin from carboxyhemoglobin and determine the oxy-hemoglobin saturation even when the patient has carbon monoxide poisoning. Capnometer:A capnometer is an instrument for monitoring breathing rate and adequacy of ventilation. It attaches to the endotracheal tube and measure the carbon dioxide content in the inspired and expired air. It uses an infrared light to measure the amount of light absorbed by carbon dioxide molecules during breathing. It detects changes in carbon dioxide concentrations in patients who are hemodynamically stable, but not critically ill. Arterial blood gas (ABG) analysis: This is a blood test using samples extracted from an artery. The test determines the pH of the blood, the partial pressure of carbon dioxide and oxygen, and the bicarbonate level. Many blood gas analyzers will also report concentrations of lactate, hemoglobin, several electrolytes, oxy-hemoglobin, carboxyhemoglobin and methemoglobin. The arterial blood gas analysis determines gas exchange levels in the blood related to lung function.

Nonin Oximeter Review - Onyx 9500 and GO2

This is the first of a series of articles comparing Nonin pulse oximeters against other less famous brands. You, as an informed customer, can make the appropriate decision when buying a oximeter.

How to Buy Home Pulse Oximeter

Excellent pulse oximeters are available at different price points. You should not base your decision on prices and brand names only. When we selected products for sale, we discovered some high quality finger tip and handheld oximeter for a great price. You should also consider your needs and expectations from the oximeter unit. Some of the aspects that we consider when testing oximeters are as follows; first and foremost is the oximeter FDA approved for sale in the US, how accurate and reliable is it, (keep in mind that all oximeters have an error rate, make sure that the error rate is not larger than 3.5%), how easy it is to use, size, comfort and convenience, and lastly, what other advance features, like study software, recording options and printable reports does the unit offers to the user.

How to Clean Pulse Oximeter

Pulse oximeter reguires regular cleaning to remove grease and dirt accumulated. The key is be gentle and use dry, clean and soft cloth.

History of Pulse Oximetry

Pulse oximeter has been an important development in medical history. The progress within such a short time has been amazing.

How do We Review Pulse Oximeters for Sale

Describe the process in reviewing and evaluating pulse oximeters for sale in our website.

Uses and Benefits of Pulse Oximeters

Both oxygen saturation level and pulse rate are vital signs of a patient. Oximeters are inexpensive and can report an accurate reading within seconds.

Using Pulse Oximeter with Cold Hands

Warm up your hands first before trying to use your pulse oximeter in a cold environment.

Pediatric Pulse Oximeter

When using pediatric pulse oximeter, two things that you have to be aware when taking SpO2 measurements for infants and children. A study was performed to determine the precision and accuracy of pediatric pulse oximeter readings at different locations with 50 critically ill children, from newborn to two years. The results indicated that readings at toe were more accurate than at sole and readings at palm and fingers were comparable. However, when the SpO2 was less than 90%, readings from the toe and finger were more accurate than those from the sole and palm. For infants and young children, a handheld pulse oximeter with pediatric oximeter probe is preferred over a finger pulse oximeter. For a handheld oximeter, only the sensor is attached to the patient and this minimizes the issues caused by the patient's movement. Furthermore, with different types of probe, it can grasp onto the patients better.

Using Oximeter For Weak Pulse

When taking reading with pulse oximeter on critical patients, there are a few precuations to get an accurate readings.

What is Sleep Apnea

Sleep apnea is a temporary pause in breathing or shallow breaths during sleep. This condition can affect your quality of life as well as your health. CPAP machines are commonly used to force oxygen to your lungs thus helping you maintain a healthy oxygen saturation level in your blood.

Nonin and Choice Oximeters Review - Specifications

In comparing the specifications of the oximeters under review, differences are highlighted. As a buyer, you can determine which one worths the money.

Nonin and Choice Oximeter Review - Normal Cases

By testing the four oximeters (Onyx 9500, GO2, MD300C63, and MD300C1) under a wide range of simulated conditions, there is no significant difference in their performance.

Nonin and Choice Oximeter Review - Low Perfusion

When testing the pulse oximeters with weak signals, they all performed well until the signal strength was below 0.4%. Nonin oximeters kept on working while Choice oximeters failed. The 0.4% signal strength is very weak and is not common among patients.

Nonin and Choice Oximeter Review - Pulse Rate, Light and Motion

The effectiveness of a pulse oximeter can be affected by the patient's pulse rate, ambient light, and patient's motion. This experiment studied their effects on pulse oximeters from Nonin and Choice, two leading oximeter manufacturers.

Which Pulse Oximeter is Best For Me

This page offers a review and comparison of many kinds of pulse oximeters based on the functions and features offered by the different models. It also helps users with different to select the oximeter that best suits their need based on the intended use. This page introduces the consumer to a wide range of oximeters based not only on price point but also capabilities and sophistication. You can find a value oximeter for as low as $20.00 or if you want the bells and whistles of an oximeter designs for long term study, you can learn about those too.

What is Perfusion Index (PI)

Perfusion Index or PI is the ratio of the pulsatile blood flow to the non-pulsatile static blood flow in a patient's peripheral tissue, such as finger tip, toe, or ear lobe. Perfusion index is an indication of the pulse strength at the sensor site. The PI's values range from 0.02% for very weak pulse to 20% for extremely strong pulse. The perfusion index varies depending on patients, physiological conditions, and monitoring sites. Because of this variability, each patient should establish his own "normal" perfusion index for a given location and use this for monitoring purposes. Perfusion index is normally monitored with pulse oximeters. PI is also a good indicator of the reliability of the pulse oximeter reading. For most pulse oximeters for general use, the reading is unreliable or unavailable if PI is at or below 0.4%. There are oximeters, such as those from Masimo, designed for extreme low PI. Most people that use an oximeter at home would not need a perfusion index indicator because they are considered to be in general good health. A perfusion index adds a lot of sensitivity to the oximeter sensor thus adding to the cost of the oximeter.

What is Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS)

Latest research findings from different studies tend to indicate a common denominator as the cause for sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS). That common factor is low blood oxygen level and a diminish capability of some babies to wake up after experiencing low blood oxygen levels. SIDS or the sudden death of a child under age one in which the cause cannot be determined is the number one cause of fatalities for infants between one month and one year of age. Its primary causes have not been determined even though there are many theories and studies. Recently many researchers believe that SIDS is due to multiple factors not always related and medical conditions that have as a common denominator a low blood oxygen level and a diminish capability of some babies to wake up after experiencing low blood oxygen levels due to several factors that include hypoxia, sleeping in areas with low ventilation or high concentration of carbon dioxide. In a new research reported on April 2014, by Professor Roger Byard AO, Marks Professor of Pathology at the University of Adelaide and Senior Specialist Forensic Pathologist with Forensic Science South Australia discovered the presence of a staining of the brain caused by a protein called β-amyloid precursor protein (APP). This protein is present in babies that had died from asphyxia and babies that had presumably died from SIDS On another study researchers at Boston Children’s Hospital have found many babies that die “suddenly and unexpectedly” have “underlying brainstem abnormalities and are not all normal prior to death.” The hospital published its findings in the December issue of Pediatrics. “These abnormalities impair brainstem circuits that help control breathing, heart rate, blood pressure and temperature control during sleep,” the hospital wrote in a press release on the finding of neuropathologist Dr. Hannah Kinney and her team. “The researchers believe [the abnormalities] prevent sleeping babies from rousing when they re-breathe too much carbon dioxide (due to inadequate ventilation), breathe too little oxygen or become overheated (from overbundling).”

Ear Pulse Oximeter Probe Guide

Follow the procedure her when using a pulse oximeter ear probe. It may sound straight forward, but in reality it is not easy for some patients. For an oximeter probe to work properly, the signal must be stable and strong enough for the probe to work.

 

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