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The pulse bar or pleth is a graphical representation of how your heart beats; although it does not give you a set of numbers, it gives you an indication of your general health and heart conditions. Here we will discuss how and why you should pay attention to this signal. Pulse rhythm, pulse rate and pulse strength are three of the factors that you can assess with a pulse oximeter.
The accuracy range of a pulse oximeter is defined as the root-mean-square (rms) of the differences between measured SpO2 values and SaO2 reference values. This is different from the traditional definition that a reading would have a probability of over 99.9% to fall within the range.
Pulse Oximeter: A pulse oximeter is a device intended for the non-invasive measurement of arterial blood oxygen saturation and pulse rate. Typically it uses two LEDs (light-emitting diodes) generating red and infrared lights through a translucent part of the body. Bone, tissue, pigmentation, and venous vessels normally absorb a constant amount of light over time. Oxy-hemoglobin and its deoxygenated form have significantly different absorption pattern. The arteriolar bed normally pulsates and absorbs variable amounts of light during systole and diastole, as blood volume increases and decreases. The ratio of light absorbed at systole and diastole is translated into an oxygen saturation measurement. CO-oximeter: A CO-oximeter is a device for detecting hypoxia and works similar to a pulse oximeter. CO-oximeter measures absorption at several wavelengths to distinguish oxy-hemoglobin from carboxyhemoglobin and determine the oxy-hemoglobin saturation even when the patient has carbon monoxide poisoning. Capnometer:A capnometer is an instrument for monitoring breathing rate and adequacy of ventilation. It attaches to the endotracheal tube and measure the carbon dioxide content in the inspired and expired air. It uses an infrared light to measure the amount of light absorbed by carbon dioxide molecules during breathing. It detects changes in carbon dioxide concentrations in patients who are hemodynamically stable, but not critically ill. Arterial blood gas (ABG) analysis: This is a blood test using samples extracted from an artery. The test determines the pH of the blood, the partial pressure of carbon dioxide and oxygen, and the bicarbonate level. Many blood gas analyzers will also report concentrations of lactate, hemoglobin, several electrolytes, oxy-hemoglobin, carboxyhemoglobin and methemoglobin. The arterial blood gas analysis determines gas exchange levels in the blood related to lung function.
This is the first of a series of articles comparing Nonin pulse oximeters against other less famous brands. You, as an informed customer, can make the appropriate decision when buying a oximeter.
Pulse oximeter reguires regular cleaning to remove grease and dirt accumulated. The key is be gentle and use dry, clean and soft cloth.
Pulse oximeter has been an important development in medical history. The progress within such a short time has been amazing.
Describe the process in reviewing and evaluating pulse oximeters for sale in our website.
Both oxygen saturation level and pulse rate are vital signs of a patient. Oximeters are inexpensive and can report an accurate reading within seconds.
Warm up your hands first before trying to use your pulse oximeter in a cold environment.
When using pediatric pulse oximeter, two things that you have to be aware when taking SpO2 measurements for infants and children. A study was performed to determine the precision and accuracy of pediatric pulse oximeter readings at different locations with 50 critically ill children, from newborn to two years. The results indicated that readings at toe were more accurate than at sole and readings at palm and fingers were comparable. However, when the SpO2 was less than 90%, readings from the toe and finger were more accurate than those from the sole and palm. For infants and young children, a handheld pulse oximeter with pediatric oximeter probe is preferred over a finger pulse oximeter. For a handheld oximeter, only the sensor is attached to the patient and this minimizes the issues caused by the patient's movement. Furthermore, with different types of probe, it can grasp onto the patients better.
When taking reading with pulse oximeter on critical patients, there are a few precuations to get an accurate readings.
In comparing the specifications of the oximeters under review, differences are highlighted. As a buyer, you can determine which one worths the money.
When testing the pulse oximeters with weak signals, they all performed well until the signal strength was below 0.4%. Nonin oximeters kept on working while Choice oximeters failed. The 0.4% signal strength is very weak and is not common among patients.
The effectiveness of a pulse oximeter can be affected by the patient's pulse rate, ambient light, and patient's motion. This experiment studied their effects on pulse oximeters from Nonin and Choice, two leading oximeter manufacturers.
Perfusion Index or PI is the ratio of the pulsatile blood flow to the non-pulsatile static blood flow in a patient's peripheral tissue, such as finger tip, toe, or ear lobe. Perfusion index is an indication of the pulse strength at the sensor site. The PI's values range from 0.02% for very weak pulse to 20% for extremely strong pulse. The perfusion index varies depending on patients, physiological conditions, and monitoring sites. Because of this variability, each patient should establish his own "normal" perfusion index for a given location and use this for monitoring purposes. Perfusion index is normally monitored with pulse oximeters. PI is also a good indicator of the reliability of the pulse oximeter reading. For most pulse oximeters for general use, the reading is unreliable or unavailable if PI is at or below 0.4%. There are oximeters, such as those from Masimo, designed for extreme low PI. Most people that use an oximeter at home would not need a perfusion index indicator because they are considered to be in general good health. A perfusion index adds a lot of sensitivity to the oximeter sensor thus adding to the cost of the oximeter.
Latest research findings from different studies tend to indicate a common denominator as the cause for sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS). That common factor is low blood oxygen level and a diminish capability of some babies to wake up after experiencing low blood oxygen levels. SIDS or the sudden death of a child under age one in which the cause cannot be determined is the number one cause of fatalities for infants between one month and one year of age. Its primary causes have not been determined even though there are many theories and studies. Recently many researchers believe that SIDS is due to multiple factors not always related and medical conditions that have as a common denominator a low blood oxygen level and a diminish capability of some babies to wake up after experiencing low blood oxygen levels due to several factors that include hypoxia, sleeping in areas with low ventilation or high concentration of carbon dioxide. In a new research reported on April 2014, by Professor Roger Byard AO, Marks Professor of Pathology at the University of Adelaide and Senior Specialist Forensic Pathologist with Forensic Science South Australia discovered the presence of a staining of the brain caused by a protein called β-amyloid precursor protein (APP). This protein is present in babies that had died from asphyxia and babies that had presumably died from SIDS On another study researchers at Boston Children’s Hospital have found many babies that die “suddenly and unexpectedly” have “underlying brainstem abnormalities and are not all normal prior to death.” The hospital published its findings in the December issue of Pediatrics. “These abnormalities impair brainstem circuits that help control breathing, heart rate, blood pressure and temperature control during sleep,” the hospital wrote in a press release on the finding of neuropathologist Dr. Hannah Kinney and her team. “The researchers believe [the abnormalities] prevent sleeping babies from rousing when they re-breathe too much carbon dioxide (due to inadequate ventilation), breathe too little oxygen or become overheated (from overbundling).”
Follow the procedure her when using a pulse oximeter ear probe. It may sound straight forward, but in reality it is not easy for some patients. For an oximeter probe to work properly, the signal must be stable and strong enough for the probe to work.
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